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Восточный Экспресс Осень

            Планами Минвостокразвития сформулирован новый вектор в лесной политике — наращивание производства несырьевых продуктов с их экспортом в страны АТР, в первую очередь в Китай, — отметила в своем докладе сотрудник института экономических исследований ДВО РАН доктор экономических наук Наталья Антонова.

Новый виток сотрудничества с Китаем в целях роста товарооборота до 200 млрд долл. в год говорит о том, что в ближайшие годы государством будут предприняты шаги на создание особых экономических и зон опережающего развития в тех отраслях экономики, которые интересны китайскому бизнесу. Производство товаров лесного комплекса выделяется тем, что максимально приближено к границам Китая, и поэтому приобретает огромные перспективы. Что это будет за продукция? Каковы ее перспективы на международных рынках? Факт запрета на вырубку леса и создание десятков тысяч предприятий по переработке древесины в северо-восточных провинциях КНР говорит о том, что льготные условия, которые обещает создать государство с 2015 года, не смогут ускорить реализацию инвестпроектов по глубокой переработке древесины. Убедиться в этом помогают труды ученых института экономических исследований ДВО РАН.

За последние 20 лет Китай превратился в главного игрока на мировом рынке лесной продукции. Роль КНР стала настолько велика, что тотально влияет на лесной рынок Японии, Южной Кореи, Новой Зеландии, Канады и США, писал в своих трудах доктор экономических наук Александр Шейнгауз. Другими словами, Китай стал законодателем мод в ценообразовании как на древесное сырье, так и на готовую продукцию. Александр Шейнгауз не уделял в своих работах внимания вопросам нелегальной поставки древесины из России или растущим объемам использования на Дальнем Востоке китайской рабочей силы. Он просто давал оценку развивающимся тенденциям на китайском рынке с использованием данных статистической отчетности. Обеспеченность на душу населения лесными площадями составляет в Китае 0,13 га, а на Дальнем Востоке — 41 га, объемами сырья в Китае — 10 куб. м, а на Дальнем Востоке — 3 000 куб м на человека. Ученый доказал, что низкая обеспеченность населения Китая лесными ресурсами на сотни лет вперед определяет формирование политики в импорте сырья и экспорте свой продукции переработки. В 1997 году китайские партнеры сообщали своим коллегам за рубежом: лесные ресурсы Китая истощены, структура лесов разбалансирована, способность снабжения населения лесной продукцией мала. Именно с потерей лесов ученые КНР связывали ухудшение экологической ситуации в провинциях. Сегодня восстановление лесов в КНР по размерам площадей под саженцы вышло на первое место в мире.

— В ходе реформ по переходу к открытой экономике в КНР было принято значительное число нормативных актов в сфере регулирования лесных отношений: лесной закон, закон о защите дикой природы, правила охраны лесов от пожаров, вредителей и болезней, правила лесопользования и многие другие, — напомнила Наталья Антонова. — Формирование законодательной базы в России отставало на десятилетие. В 1998 году правительством КНР принимается программа по восстановлению лесного покрова с выплатой дотаций населению за возвращение распаханных участков под леса и луга. С 2001 по 2005 годы были реализованы 10 крупных эколого-технических программ восстановления лесов. В то время там действовали 2,5 тысячи научных организаций для внедрения экспериментальных разработок со штатом в 50 тысяч человек. В 2003 году в Китае действовали 10 300 лесопильных заводов, из которых 350 имели производственные мощности более 30 тыс. куб. м в год. Объемы выпуска плит МДФ и ДСП, клееной фанеры, бруса и сейчас говорят о том, что лесная политика в Китае ориентирована на развитие собственного производства. Возможно, что решения Минвостокразвития по снижению налоговой нагрузки и наращивание государственных преференций запаздывают.

Всего 10 лет назад Китай являлся самым крупным производителем плит МДФ с самой низкой себестоимостью, что и обусловило выпуск качественной мебели на 24 млрд долл. ежегодно. Около 10 лет назад в Китае работали 50 тысяч мебельных фабрик, на которых трудились пять миллионов человек. Действовало почти 1 000 рынков лесной продукции, которые сделали страну крупнейшей в мире по потреблению древесины. Об этом свидетельствуют огромные объемы импорта сырья из регионов Дальнего Востока. Около 92 процентов импорта лесной продукции приходится на круглый лес. Основным импортером сырья традиционно является Россия, поэтому для нас особую роль играет лесная политика китайского правительства, которая направлена на снижение стоимости древесной продукции через налог на добавленную стоимость и создание зон свободной торговли.

Очевидно, что выводы профессора Александра Шейнгауза не учтены при разработке федеральной целевой программы развития Дальнего Востока и Байкальского региона. Как подчеркнули ученые института, ценным вкладом в разработку программы считается мнение иностранных инвесторов, хотя китайские партнеры и не всегда учитывают в своих решениях интересы лесного комплекса Дальнего Востока.

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